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                                          三国文化―昭化古城―蜀国第二都

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                                                  昭化古城,三国文化重要发祥之城,是蜀汉政权兴衰见证地,有“蜀国第二都”之称。

                                            1、昭化古城,三国文化重要发祥之城。

                                            昭化古城众多的历史文化中,尤以三国文化著称于世。历史上有“蜀汉兴于昭化,亡于剑门”之说,现存三国遗迹俯拾皆是,有闻名遐迩的葭萌关、牛头山、费祎墓、鲍三墓。昭化古城三国文化源远流长,先主刘备曾在此厚树恩德,广收民心,操练兵马,屯积粮草,创建了建立蜀汉政权的根据地。诸葛亮从建兴五年起,六出祁山伐魏,一直奔忙于葭萌古蜀道上。蜀汉后期,费祎主持蜀中军政大事,奉命在昭化设丞相府,在?#35828;?#24481;魏国大军。张?#21830;?#28783;夜战马超于战胜坝,传为千古佳话。姜维兵困牛头?#21073;?#30041;下令人称奇的“拜水池”。古城内还存有武侯祠、关帝庙等遗址。蜀汉遗迹、遗风、民间传说源远流长,三国文化影响深远。原全国政协副主席杨汝岱在昭化古城考察?#22868;?#24773;写下了“三国重镇”的题词。我国著名古建筑专家,世界遗产管理委?#34987;?#20013;国委?#34987;?#21103;主席罗哲文,2004年到昭化考察?#22868;?#21160;地指出:“昭化古城特别众多的三国遗址,突出展示了三国蜀汉文化的丰富内涵,是研究蜀汉政治、军事、经济文化的重要例证,十分珍贵”。 

                                            2、昭化古城素有“蜀国第二都”之称,是蜀汉政权兴衰的历史见证地。

                                            据《三国志.先主传》载:“先主北到葭萌,未即讨鲁,厚树恩德,以收众心”。建?#24425;?#19971;年(公元212年),刘备到葭萌以后,察看地势,果然如张松所献地图,“此城两江汇合,绕城东去;金牛古道,穿城而过;剑门雄关,巍峨傍立;桔柏古渡,扼江拒守?#20445;?#34429;属“弹丸之城,却有金汤之固?#20445;?#23454;属战略要地,就此驻兵,操练兵马,于建?#24425;?#19971;年(公元212年),乘曹操进攻东吴之机,采纳庞统意见,以帮助东吴为由,掉头离开葭萌,出剑阁西下,攻取成都,迫使刘璋拱手投降,为蜀国的建立奠定了坚实基础。章武元年(公元221年),刘备在成都建立蜀汉王国,自已登基作了昭?#19968;?#24093;。此时的刘备,不忘发迹的?#32454;?#25454;地葭萌,亲?#28304;?#24403;时流行的吉祥“汉祚永寿?#20445;?#31066;,意为君王的位置)中,取首尾二字,将葭萌改为汉寿县。寄托了他希望自己开创的汉室江?#21073;?#19982;天地共存,与日月同寿的美好愿望。因而有“蜀汉兴,葭萌起”之说。 

                                            蜀汉政权建立后,汉寿城为诸葛亮六出祁?#21073;?#23004;维九伐中原的军需物资转运基地和指挥中心。诸葛亮从建兴五年起,六出祁山伐魏,一直奔忙于葭萌古蜀道上。?#28216;?#21313;九年(公元252年)费祎受命在汉寿开设丞相府,继蒋婉之后掌管蜀国军政大事,?#25991;?#37202;醉被曹?#33322;到?#37101;循所害,死后葬于汉寿(今昭化)。费祎被害后,姜维继掌蜀国军事大权,但是九伐中原而无果。景元四年冬(《三国志.钟会传》),魏国分三路大军向蜀?#33322;?#25915;。姜维败退致剑门关,想凭借剑门关天?#31449;?#25932;,?#20248;?#24038;车骑将军张翼、辅国大将军董厥与葭萌原守将胡济、关索等共同死守汉寿(昭化)。与此同时,?#33322;?#38047;会又在桔柏渡摆开阵势,企图渡过嘉陵江,夺取汉寿城。两军进行了多?#35199;檎剑?#20851;索夫人鲍三娘就战死在此?#34903;校?#27515;后葬于昭化城北?#36857;?#40077;三娘墓保存至今。公元263年11月,“翼、厥甫至汉寿,维、化亦舍阴平而退,适与翼、厥合,皆退保剑阁以拒会”。邓艾军越阴?#21073;?#30772;诸葛瞻于绵竹,刘禅请降,维系了42年的蜀汉政权宣告灭亡。蜀汉政权虽然灭亡了,但昭化古城记述三国蜀汉兴亡史迹和留下的传说与遗址,却为研究三国文化提供了丰富的史料。故有:“蜀汉兴,葭萌起;蜀汉亡,葭萌止。”的民间传言。
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